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ZPM (Zeta Potential Mixer)


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ZPM changes the way water molecules relate to each other

Water Becomes Self Sterilizing
The zeta potential of the water is shifted into a high negative state, this drops the water surface tension and makes it extremely difficult for bacteria to survive in the water, yet there are no chemicals in the water.

The system has changed the way water molecules relate to each other, also referred to as the hydrogen bonding. Every surface in contact with the water develops a high zeta potential and becomes self-cleaning & sterilising.

Disease Control and Endotoxins
The ZPM amplifies coagulation and flocculation reactions to make the suspended solids larger and easier to remove by the filters. A ZPM unit should always be used prior to mechanical filters as an injection point for coagulants. Continuous coagulation and flocculation must be used to ensure physical removal of cryptosporidium oocysts, giardia, nematodes and dissolved organics.

ZPM changes the way water molecules relate to each other

Barrier Against Pathagens

The ZPM after the filter mechanically smashes cryptosporidium oocysts, bacteria floc and even single bacteria. The water is mechanically disinfected and the performance of chlorine is amplified

Best Water Quality

The ZPM before the filter amplifies coagulation and flocculation reactions of APF and NoPhos to improve the filtration performance of AFM® and reduce chlorine consumption.

Self Sterilizing Water

Every surface in contact with the water develops a high zeta potential and becomes self-cleaning & sterilizing.

Zeta Potential Mixer

What is ZPM ?

ZPM stands for ‘ Zeta Potential Mixer ‘ ZPM‘s are static mixers for the injection of products such as APF, ACO or NoPhos and for the cavitation of water. They are manufactured in stainless steel for freshwater and in titanium or plastic for marine applications. The ZPM is flanged into the pipework, the water is made to cavitate and spin at high speed which helps to kill parasites. The ZPM also helps to drop the zeta potential of the water, this causes flocculation of solids and increases the redox oxidation potential at the same time; the water is becoming self sterilising.

Benefits at a glance

Small investment
No power required
No operating and maintenance costs
Injection point for coagulants, flocculants & biocides.
Amplifies the performance of coagulation reactions to remove 50% more organics
Kills cryptosporidium oocysts, protozoa and nematodes or renders them open to oxidation
Reduces biocide consumption by up to 25%
Reduce pH correction chemicals by up to 25%
Breaks up bacteria floc. and amplifies the performance of disinfectants such as chlorine.
Benefits at a glance
How to use ZPM

How to use ZPM

The greater the pressure differential across the ZPM, the more powerful the cavitation reactions. The ZPM before the filter should be electrically earthed to allow the electrons rubbed-off to go to the ground. The ZPM before the filter should be chosen to have a pressure drop not exceeding 0.3 bar for filters running at 30 m/hr. It should still be possible to back-wash the filters at 40 – 50 m/hr by pumping the water through the ZPM. If the flow rate is compromised, a by-pass around the ZPM may be required to achieve the required back-wash water flow.

The ZPM after the filter should be sized to give a pressure drop between 0.3 and 0.5 bar, a higher pressure drop increases cavitation reactions and improves disinfection. A pressure drop of 0.5 bar will disinfect the water and help chlorine to kill bacteria and parasites before the water is returned back to the pool.

Rule of thumb for private pools:
filter piping 2“= > ZPM upstream of the filter should be 2“ with 2 fins and downstream of the filter 2” with 3 fins.

DAISY filter circulation for private pools


Micro/Ultrafine (Nano) bubbles

ZPM generates Micro/Ultrafine (Nano) bubbles that have a high degree of stability and are attracted to the surface of particles such as; viruses, bacteria, fungal spores and protozoa or the surface of organic molecules. On touching a solid surface, the localised pressure is 2000 bar and temperatures up to 3000 °C are generated.

The Nano-bubbles collapse to release energy directly onto the cell membranes. This has the effect of disinfecting the water without the use of chemicals. When a Nano-bubble collapses on an organic molecule, the energy released will oxidise the molecule. Any Nano-bubbles that do not collapse will auto destruct after a few seconds.

How to use ZPM

Nano-bubble implosion process
The water molecules are pulled apart by the cavitation reactions which creates nano-bubbles and these help disinfect the water. The greater the pressure differential across a ZPM, the stronger the cavitation reactions. No energy is lost through this reaction as it is returned to the water in the form of heat.

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